(Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1990) is a Professor with research interests in Southern Hemisphere middle and high latitude climate dynamics, Antarctic sea ice – (largescale)atmosphere interactions and global climate change and variability. Dr. Raphael teaches classes in Tropical climatology, Boundary Layer Climates and Environmental Impact Analysis.
B.A. (Hons) Geography, McMaster University, Canada 1984
M.A. Geography, The Ohio State University, 1986
Ph.D. Geography, The Ohio State University, 1990
The Santa Ana Winds of California, Global Climate Change and Variability, Climate Modelling, Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics, Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation and Climate, Antarctic Sea Ice Variability.
- Raphael, M. and Marika Holland: 2006 Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere Climate in Coupled Models. Part I: Large Scale Circulation Variability, Climate Dynamics, 26:217-228, DOI 10.1007/s00382-005-0082-8 (PDF)
- Holland, M.M and Marilyn N. Raphael: 2006 Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere Climate in Coupled Models. Part II: Sea Ice Conditions and Variability. Climate Dynamics, 26:229-245, DOI 10.1007/s00382-005-0087-3
- Raphael, M.N., 2004: A zonal wave 3 index for the Southern Hemisphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020365.
- Raphael, M. N., 2003: Impact of observed sea-ice concentration on the Southern Hemisphere extratropical atmospheric circulation in summer. J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. D22, 4687 10.1029/2002JD003308
- Raphael, M.N. 2003 Recent, Large-Scale Changes in the Extratropical Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation. J. Clim., 16, No. 17, pp. 2915-2924.
- Raphael, M.N. 2003 A possible influence of the tropical quasi-biennialoscillation on the variability of the extratropical circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. D22,469410.1029/2003JD003862
- Raphael, M.N. 2003: The Santa Ana Winds of California. Earth Interactions. 7, 1-13.